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The thesis concludes with suggestions regarding how to make Finnish planning more future-oriented and sustainable. These suggestions build on an assumption according to which the ability of the planning apparatus to respond to challenges such as those set by climate change requires high performance and legitimacy of the public planning institution. First, promoting communicative perspectives in planning ought not to be considered as an alternative to a strong public planning institution. Hence, legitimacy of planning should not be sought solely from bottom-up communicativeness sources and inter-personal trust; traditional institutions of representative democracy and institutional trust should be taken into consideration, too. Second, resorting to Communicative Planning Theory while deconstructing the discretionary powers of the central government is highly problematic. Hence, increasing municipal discretionary powers (to the extent that has already taken place), necessitates better expert resources and resources in land use policies, regardless of the size of the municipality. The central government should be allowed to maintain its guiding and supportive role in relation to the planning practitioners working in the municipalities. Also, more sustainable and long-sighted planning requires more binding planning legislation.

The authors studied the effect of naltrexone (0.25 and 1.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) on the communicative and aggressive behavior of male C57BL/6J mice with experience in triumphs in 20 tests (victors) and of mice without such experience (novices). The level of communicativeness and aggression at the first confrontation was more marked in novices than in victors. In the novices 0.25 mg/kg naltrexone selectively reduced communicativeness and in a dose of 1.0 mg/kg shortened the sum time of the aggressive attacks, increasing in this case the time of aggressive grooming. In the victors naltrexone in both doses had no effect on the communicative behavior and period of aggressive grooming but increased the duration of the attacks depending on the dose. In both groups naltrexone increased the number of subjects which demonstrated aggressive attacks and reduced the frequency of aggressive grooming. It is concluded that the state of opiate receptors changes under the effect of repeated experience in the triumph of social confrontations.

Olmsted's wilderness is primarily a state of mind. He finds the "pioneer condition" whereverman is held sway by his self-interest rather than his civilizing spirit. Even after leaving thecountry's literal frontier, Olmsted's desire to civilize the wilderness tookhim to Brooklyn and to Asheville, North Carolina, to Boston and San Francisco. When hedid return to California in 1886 to plan the grounds of Stanford University, he did not make thetrip to Yosemite, an indication, perhaps, that he felt his plans had not been properly executed.Laura Wood Roper has written that Olmsted regarded himself as less an artistthan as a sort of social engineer, an educator of hearts, a refiner of minds, one whose functionwas to civilize men, to develop in them communicativeness, and to raise the general level ofAmerican society by exerting a beneficent influence on environment and by modifyingunfavorable surroundings through art.This is an awesome task. Expandingthe frontier to include those unsettled regions in the psyche of man, while it may take care ofTurner's problem of the closing of the frontier, nonetheless widens the playing field to such anextent that one can easily imagine how Olmsted could have felt himself to be continually losingground.

Mr. Takács has received numerous prizes and awards for his performances, including First prize in the William Kapell International Competition, the C.D. Jackson Award for Excellence in Chamber Music at the Tanglewood Music Center, and a Solo Recitalist Grant from the National Endowment for the Arts. His performances have been hailed by audiences and the press for their penetrating intellectual insight as well as for emotional urgency and communicativeness.

The disability claimed in this case is mental disorder continuously existing since on or before 1965 to date. Based upon the extensive clinical summary of the Central Islip State Hospital on Long Island, there can be no question that plaintiff was admitted to that institution on November 24, 1965, suffering from "Schizophrenia, undifferentiated type." Tr. 101, 108. This occurred after months of eccentric behavior on plaintiff's part, including refusal to go to his daily work, lack of communicativeness and other bizarre actions. After some months of care by a private psychiatrist, Dr. Oscar Pelzman, Tr. 140, the family's limited economic resources required resort to a public institution. Except for one unsuccessful attempt to return plaintiff to his family, he remained at the institution until released on "convalescent care" on May 27, 1966, to continue on medications subject to the discretion of the clinic physician. Tr. 105. 041b061a72


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