We present three experiments testing the hypothesis that context reinstated from EM intrudes on WM maintenance. In Experiment 1, we show that participants substitute same-context items in response to interference in a classic short-term delayed-recall task with distraction during the maintenance period. These intrusions are distinct from the recency effect traditionally used to identify episodic influence in this task. In Experiment 2, we show that the influence of reinstated context is evident in response times, even when accuracy is at ceiling. In Experiment 3, we repeat the task from Experiment 2 with fMRI, and use multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to generate a trial-by-trial neural measure of how likely it was that participants were recalling a specific past context. We use this neural index of reinstatement to predict the degree of response-time bias on a given trial. Finally, we show that EM reinstatement affects responses via a specific effect on the contents of WM during the maintenance period.
Over a series of three experiments, we tested the hypothesis that episodic memory reinstatement influences performance under task conditions traditionally used to assess working memory maintenance, even in the absence of external interference. In Experiment 1, we showed that, when working memory maintenance is disrupted in a delayed-recall task, participants intrude other items from the same context as the studied target items.
early 15c., in an ecclesiastical sense, "take possession of (a prebend) not rightfully one's own," a back-formation from intrusion, or else from Latin intrudere "to thrust in, force in," from in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + trudere "to thrust, push," from PIE *treud- "to press, push, squeeze" (see threat).
late 14c., "unjust invasion of property or usurpation of office," from Old French intrusion (14c.), from Medieval Latin intrusionem (nominative intrusio) "a thrusting in," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin intrudere "to thrust in, force in," from in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + trudere "to thrust, push," from PIE *treud- "to press, push, squeeze" (see threat).
The removable appliance was discontinued when the left incisor was intruded level to the upper right central incisor (Fig. 3). For retention, a piece of multistrand wire, as a fixed retainer, was adapted to the lingual surfaces of the upper incisors and bonded using a light-curable adhesive resin. After orthodontic treatment, the patient was referred to a periodontist for a minor gingivectomy (crown lengthening) operation on the upper left central incisor. The gingivectomy operation was done by electrosurgery (Fig. 4).
Overbite control is a key factor in orthodontic treatment. In some cases, incisor intrusion is essential and could be an optimal strategy for overbite control. The aim of this article was to introduce a biomechanical system called the posterior miniscrew-assisted lever arm, which is innovative in using existing posterior miniscrews to intrude the upper incisors and to control anterior overbite while simultaneously retracting the anterior teeth. Its efficiency in incisor intrusion has been proved with 2 cases.
Their treatment plans were to extract 4 first premolars and insert 2 maxillary posterior buccal miniscrews. After teeth aligning and leveling, en masse retraction was started in both arches. During the space-closing stage, posterior miniscrew-assisted lever arms were placed in their upper arches so as to intrude upper incisors and control the overbite.
No one can predict when reality will intrude on Wall Street, or whether stock prices will crash, stagnate, or slowly wind down. We could see another good year, though the outlook is clouded by the Asian financial crisis, projected slower growth, and the present overvaluation of stocks. 041b061a72